January 17, 1.?69 CCNGRESSION AL RECORD-.SENATE 8535
SENATE JOINT RESOLUTIONS 19, 20,
AND 21-ELEC'I'ORAL REFORMTHE
vote in national elections before they
arc 21? Our St.atc presidential Tlrimo.ries
have little relevance to party conventions,
which have become cumbersome,
confused, and outmoded. A national pri-
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, 2 mary system would be more relevant to
days ago. the distinguished Senator from t.he late 2oth century. The man on the
· Indiana (Mr. BAYI!l introduced a joint. street. is perfectly capable of studying the
resolution seeking to achieve a constitu- pros and cons in a presidential election.
t.ionnl amendment to allow t.he people to
elect dlrccllr the President of the United The individual voter needs to know tllat
his one vote had something to do wit.h the
Stntrs and to \l('nnit Congress by law to e!Pction of a President. and Vice PresiJll'o'<
Nibc a uuiforrn vot.ing age. dent.. He doesn't nl'cd an intermediary.
Doth Sl'nalor AmEN and I arl' sponsors Also the office of the Prcsitlent merits a
ol lll:\t joint r('solntion, which we o.p- reassessment to determine how best one
prove and support. Today, howen'r, we man can serve his people and the Nation
are in! reducing a set of joint resolutions
coYcring the entire t>lectoral process, in- without Wldue disruption.
eluding t.he provisions in the Bayh reso- Although my comments today are
lution. but also covering the term of the somewhat abbreviated, I feel more
Prt'sidcncy, the abolition of the electoral strongly about this Issue than I did In
1968. A great deal has been said. Much
cnllctre. the vote for 18-year-olds, and more can be done in behal~ of electoral
the national primaries. reform.
As my colll'agues here in the Senate :1\Ir. Prc~itlcnt, I ask unanimous con-know,
I have been concerned for some st'nt to have the text of the three joint
time with tile inadequacies nnd inequi- resolutions, just Introduced by Senator
tics of the American electoral system. I
1un not ulone in this etfort. Many Mem- AllmN and me, be printed at the conclu-lll'rs
of Con;>:ress share my misgh·ings. slon of my remarks.
l\ly r.ood friend and colleague, thP SetHI- The PHESIDING OFPICEU.. The joint.
tor from Vermont (l\fr. Anmseh·es with, first, lowering the na- abridged by the United States or by any State
tionnl votint• age t.o 18; second (a), re- on account of age If such a citizen Is eighteen
years of age or older. The Congress shall have
placing the present nominating process; power to enforce this article by appropriate
the primaries and the conventions are JeglsiRtlon.
outmoded. They should be replaced by a "Sec. 2. This article shall be Inoperative
direct presidential primary and each unle'" It shall have been ratltled as Rn
voter should ha\·e a part in the elt>ctlon amendment to the Constitution by the legof
S\ Prf'r.irlrnt and Vlce Prt>sidt>nt 1111 1 l•lat.me• o! threc- rourthR or tho several
ltw llllol, tlt!)'(l, we· f'ltlllll'l· 1 ,• l!.nlllllHnlo;l!lontollwHinto•:Jhyllwt'nlll~ ,., ... ,. ...
to •n" ot !Itt· l'r"~ltlt'lll'Y fllficn.tlous
rcquh,;tte fnr <'lectors of thr znost nu ..
merons hrnnc.h or t.hc St.nt£' tr gt ~lnturc, hllt,
Ill the primary ele~ttnn rnch voter shall be
ellclble to vote only In the primary of tho
party of his registered n!Ollnllon.
"SEc. 3. No prnmn r.11nll be r\ cnnd1dat.c for
nomlnltt.ion for Prcslt0rmlnccl hy tho President or the
Srnnt.c to have been sJgnrcl, on or nrter the
first day In January of the yoar In whl•·h the
nrxt primary eledlon for Proslclcnt Is to he
held, by n nutnhrr or fllH\llfif'd vot<'rs, 1n
each of nt lrn~t licventN·n of tho flc\·cr:l.l
St·\.trs, erpwl tn nun1hrr t,o nt. lrn.r>t. l prr
CC'ntum of the voto en .t for Plrr.l.orG for
presld0nllnl ond vlce-pre··tll cl·lyllllll·r IH'Il prl~
lllftry Pll'l~l.lnn, UJO f'lill'r (•"(I'C'U(I\c· or (''It'll
St:tlr sh:.ll mnl'o c!l-.tlnL'I II.'' or nil per. on'
of each poll tical party for whom \•oteo were
c:t.st. ancl the number of votes fCJr rnrh such
person, whleh lists s!Jall be signer!, certlliecl.
nud transmitted under the •e;1l of such St.• te
to the Government of the Unltcc.l Sto tes <11-
rected to the Pre,ldent of the Seno 1<'. who,
In the presence of the Speaker of the House
or Represcnt'tli\'CS and the mrtje tho official cnndldnte of such
pnrty for Presler of such votes ca.st. If no person
rccel\·es nt least 40 per centum of the total
number of \·otc3 cast for candldntes for
nomlnntlon for Prr~tdcnt by the YOl.ern of o.
p<'lltlnl p'lrty, then the Conr,ro'G sh'lll proviy 1:\w, uniform throughout Lhe United
fit•ttf'9, !or n runo1T election to lJc held on
Ill<.' twrnty-elghLb day alter tho tes ts hereby nbollsbed. At a
time determined by the Cot1gres.• there shall
be held In each State and In the District of
Columbia an elecL!on to which the people
!.hereof shall vote for Pre,Jclent nny nt any time
by law m1ke or t1tcr such regulations. The
WJters In each State shall have the qunll!lca- •
tlons rcq nlslte !or electors of t.he most n umerous
branch of the State leglslnture, but '
nothing In t.hls article shall prohJblt a Stat<3
!rom nrloptlng a less restrictive residence requirement
for voting for President and VIce
PreslLc shall, In tho presence of the
Senate nml the House of Rcpresentnttves,
open nil the ccrt.tncn\.('g, and tho votes shull
thru bo totnlecl. Tho peruon s jol nrcl a.. candidates
for Prcsltlcnt nnd VIce PreHidenL, hnvlng
tho grent.cst. ntnnbcr or voteR shn.ll be
declared elect.cd President !\nd VIce President,
respectively, If such number be a plurality
umountlng to nt lea.t 40 per centum
or the totnl number of votes rertl!lecl. I.f none
of the pairs of persons joined ns candidates
for President and VIce Prrslclent shall have nt
least 40 per centum or tho totnl number or
voles certllletl, then Cougrcss shnll provide
by law, uniform throughout the Uulted
States, for n runoff election to be held between
tho two pnlrs of persons jolnecl ns cnndldntcs
for President and VIce President, respect.
lv<.'ly, who rrcclvcd t.hc highest number
of votes certlt1ccl.
"SEC. 12. If, nt the time l\xehnJl not
nffccL Lho dum Uon or 1 h~ lcrnt or omcc or
Presltlcnt nnrl VIce Prcr:ldent ln whld1 such
"Sr.c. 3. Thl~ rtrLlcl(' shnll b~ 111<-'pcrntlvo
l11l1ess 1t shnll hn.vc hrr.u raUflC'U ns t\.11
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