PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF T HE 86th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION
Vol. 105 WAS GTON, TUESDAY, J ANUARY 27, 19 59 N o. 14
The Chnpla in, Rev Frederick Brown
Harns. D.O., ofh:rcd the !ollowml>
Etemal Fa ther. Thou who art the
light behind hie's shadow.-;, and the love
behind life's sorrows,
Com!n~ Into this temple of our democracy
to pray, we would not catalog
the sins o! others, we would not exult
that. we are not as other men. But,
1·ather. confessing our own sins. we
would pray for Thy forgiveness and Thy
We beseech Thee to make us such
public servants, so captured and possessed
by Thy va:.t designs for human
brotherhood, that Thou canst trust Thy
ageless purposes to our wlllmg and eager
We ask only for ltch t enough for the
next step. courage enough to !ace the
present duty, truth enough for today's
dec1sions, as into Thy hands we commit
We ask 1t in the dear Redeemer's name.
On request of Mr. MANSf'l£LD, and by
unanimous consent, the reading of the
Journal of the proceedings of Friday,
January 23, 1959, was dispensed with.
MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE
A message from the House of Repl·esentatlves.
by Mr. Maurer, one of Its
reading clerks, communicated to the
Senate the inleUigence of the death of
Hon. 0£0RC£ H. CHRISTOPHER, late a
Representative from the State of Missouri.
and transmitted the resolutions
of the House thereon.
ORDER. FOR ADJOURNMENT TO
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President. I
ask unanimous consent that when the
Senate concludes its session today, It adJourn
to meet at 12 o'clock noon tomorrow.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Without
objection. It is so ordered.
COMMITTEE TO STUDY THE DEVELOPMENT
AND COORDINATION OF
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President. on
bchaiC o! myself and my disllngulshed
!;enior colleague h·om Montana !Mr.
MuRRAYl. I submit a resolution which I
!eel wlll make a substantial contribuUon
to the Senate's lc~islative work in the
field of water-resource conservation and
During this first session of the 86th
Congress, the U.S. Senate is faced w1th
many significant and important .issues
of natiOnwide importance. Feden\1 aid
to education. airport construction. housing.
a new farm program, community
facilities, foreign a1d. and defense are but
a few major Issues. However, I feel that
the congressional program would not be
complete if we did not devote considerable
time and effo1·t to water consel·vatlon.
This is a pressing issue, despite the
fact that In recent years there has been
substantial and significant progress in
water-resource development and conservation.
Two of the Sena~·s standing committees-
the Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs, and the Committee on Public
Works-are to be highly commended
!or their work in this area. Both distinguished
chairmen of these committees.
my able and distinguished colleague,
Montana's senior Senator I Mr. MURRAY I.
and the distinguished senior Senator
from New Mexico !Mr. CHAVEz!, have
taken the lead in the enactment of a
number Of legislat.ive proposals which
affect our water resources.
In spite of the conscientious work or
these stancUng committees, and m spl.te
of the unfailing support of water-resource
projects provided by the Committee
on Appropriatio;ns under the eminent
chai1·mansh1p of the great senior
Senator from Arizona lMr. IiAYI>ENlin
spite o! the virt.ually unanimous effort
or all or us who are concerned with
water resource matters--we are falling
dismally in our responsibllit.y !or the Na tion's
Let me explain what is meant by the
st.atement that we are failing In our
responsibillty for the Nation's water resources.
An abundance of readily avallr.ble water
of suitable quality is a principal requirement
of the Ametican way of !He,
and It is essential for continuing agricultural
and industrial production. But
responsible authorities warn that provision
for the needed water supplies is far
short of adequate.
Today, we use water at the rate o!
about 240 billion gallons a day. By 1975.
the rate of use will be about 350 billion
gallons a day. There is not now Ul1d('l'
const.ruction or planned for constructiol
by public and private agencies combinNt
watcr- resou1·cc projects that will provide
daily 350 billion gallons of water of acceptable
Let us remember that the United States
is blessed with an abundance of waterfully
enough to meet au national requirements,
provided that we wisely and fully
develop it for us. Dr. Leopold. Chle;·
Uycll·ologist of t.he Geological Sun('y,
points out that. although we as a Nation
are not short of water as a whole. ".As
matters now stand. most. water that is
immediately available and inexpensive
to use at each individual point is In usc
Mr. President, the United States is not
able to tolerate a scarcity of water supplies.
available and suitable for use aL
economic costs. By 1975, our present
population of 175 million Is expected to
be over 225 million. a 30-percent. in crease:
and by 1980 it is expected to ""
245 m!llion. a 40-percent Increase.
Even at the present rate of Per capita
water use, this SO or 40 percent popul.•tlon
tncrease would of ttseU gravely
strain our ability to meet water requirements.
Authoritative reports have, ho\\ever.
demonstrated that per capita water
uses must increase very substantially
over present use. The Chief of Engineers,
U.S. Army, has stated that it will
rise about 25 percent.
The increase in the rate of per capita
water use reflects both the rising standard
or individual living and the increased
use of water in industry. More water fo1·
individual living resUlts from such things
as more home washing machines and
dishwashet·s. more air conditioners, more
suburban lawns to sprinkle-the incidents
of the high standard of living that
we are determined tO maintain in Lhis
Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 40, Folder 11, Mansfield Library, University of Montana
10-16 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE January '27
country. Increased Industrial use of wa·
rer reflects such requirements as 200,000
gallons or water needed to produce one
ton of rayon, 300.000 gallons Q! water
needed 1.0 produce a ton of aluminum,
and 600,000 gallons of water needed for
a ton of synthetic rubber. The Nation's
lndustr~· LS geared to a hlgh·level output
of thousands of products that. require
water ln 1ncre8.'11n8 1\mounts.
These ~wo factor$-population Increase
and per-capita-use Jncrease-are
t.he basis !or tho authoritative !orecMts
that by 1975 use requirement-s will be of
the order or 350 billlon gallons a day,
about 90 percent more water tban Lhe
amount we used In 1950.
Tbe quantity reqwred ls one aspect of
the water-re!IOurces problem. Another
lmpo:rta.nt aspect Is the quality of water.
T~cbnlcal exp.,rts warn us that water
qualll.Y deteriorates with population and
fn(lustrlal expansion. They point out.
~bat untreated industrlal wastes now
POuring dally mto streams are equal to
the sewage produced by 110 m!Ulon J)eople-
double the 1920 rate. Mr. Gordon
McCallum. ot the P\lbllc Health Service,
esttmates that pollul.ion 1S costing us nt
least a billion dollars a year.
Still another lmPOrt;\nt aspect of the
water-resources problem Is one equally
' 'atuable to Americans. even though we
may not measure tt In billions of dollar$.
Wildllf~ and recreation are, In great
measure, closoly dependent on ~he wise
conservation nnd development or water
resources. From ducks or trout to sum·
mer resorts and swlmlnlng holes. concern
with wfidlt!e and recreation llS ln.separ~
able !rom concern \\'lth water resources.
All aspecta or lhe water-resources
problem-adequate quanllt)· and accept.able
quality for POPulaLion and economic
expansion, wJldllfe. recreation, and others
that t have no~ taken time t.o dl;scuM
now-such as navigation ctevelopmenl,
hydroelectric power generatJon, lrrlga.
tlon. flood control. and like purposes!\
11 of these mils~ be fitted t.Ogrther in
our watet-re$0urces pronam. This mul·
tlple-purpose coordtnatlon or water-resource
prOIJroms. rounded on suitable
legislation. as It has bten since 1936 nnd
earlier, makell mulllple-purpose l~lsln·
tJon even more ellienttal as thc }llntion
expands Its uLtllza~lon or water. This Is
because our water resource is. aCtel' nll.
a limited resource, and iilcreru~lng demands
UPOD It can be met only by con·
tmually Improved coordination and cooservation.
There ts widespread public con~ern
over the innd('(luncy o! water-resource
pro~rnms. Thi:. concern ~tems from
recognition that water supplies now
l,wailablo In mnny areas of the United
Slates wtll be Insufficient. In quanU~ El nd
unaccept.nble In quallw Cor the use requirements
or 1975. In many areas. the
future watl!r .supply ls the key to eco·
nomic devclopm!'nt. ll is reared that
inadequate nnd unsu:tab!e water \\ 1U
I am reminded of the newspaper su:count.
1 read oc n recent address made to
a meeting tn Tl'xns. th.e Sr.ate t.o whwh
we are lndebtrd' Cor rumistun.g us with
our dlstinqul~hed majority leader, Mr.
JOIUISON. At that meetmg, the he.,d of
one of the NatJon·~ lan'e lnd\1Strles explained
to his TeJCas listeners wh~· his
company Is not eX]landlng 1ts plants 1n
Texas, but Ln.st.eact It is looa.tlniJ new
plants elsewhere. The reason Is. th!s
Industrialist told hls audience, tha~ his
company would make large investments
in plant sites only where It felt secure
about the adequacy of future v:ater suppiles.
1 regret that I am probably Sl>t'aklng
tor most or my colleagues ln t.he Senat~
when 1 say thRt this experience Is repeai.
E!d J.n many oC our nome States. I
do not believe that company arrived at a
valld judgment regardin~ Texas watet·
resources, but I do know that the adequacy
of future water supplies l.S a major
factor ln the selection of plant locations
ln many lnd\1Strles.
There are, of course. many bright
spots on the \llater-resource horizon. We
are on the threshold of an ama~ng ern
of technolo~tlcal development. Now
methods. new processes, and new materla.
ls a.re opening up POSSibllltles Ln
man,y fields or endca.vox-. There .Is no
doubt Itt my mtnd 1.hat these new teeth
nlcal developments can be applfe lncreas1ng
the usefulness of avallJblc
water resour~s. 'This Is a convtcuon
!.hat I am confldcnt l.S shared by my
distingu!sbcd colleague. the JUnior Senator
from NI.'W MeX(CO [Mr. ANDERSON).
There are chnllen,lng opportunities In
new techninslve water-r~urces
development by Fcdeml. Stnt.c. nnd
private a~;encl~. This legislative program
should furnish ~he impetus !or CO·
ordinated development at. a rate that
will provide lhe quanti~y and quollty of
water LhaL will be l'equtred In the coming
years. It ~hould encourage the ndoP·
tion o! new techn1cn.l dtscover1es and improvements.
Since 1949. n number or rePOrts. prepared
prillCIP:Illy under direction Of LhC'
executive b1anch, h~HI deaiL wUh broad
questions or wat•:r-resources pollc)·,
Notable among lhese Is the 1950 report
of the President's Wnter Resources Polley
Commission, under the cbrurmanshlp o!
Morris L. Cooke. This and the othcr
reports arc help Cui In ldent!Iyln~ CCI'tnln
ot the problem$. lt must be noted, however.
thnt i.hcse reports have not become
the basis for consreMJ.onal action; and,
In fact. they are not nctually addrc•sl'd
to con~resslonal action. Probably this is
because they wert' made under the dlrcc·
tton of the executive branch. rather titan
1,1ndcr concrcsslonal direction.
It 1s our view thnt such a comm·ehensh
·c tegtsltJtlv,· prov.rnm on wntPr resource:;
n<:c~;ss.u-lly '11.111 consl.;t of m;Hly,
many indiVIdUal enactments. Exl)('rlence
has demons~rnt.ed that the gre11t
diversity of conditions and the wide
variety of consideraUons ~hat bear on tho
water problems of different portions oC
this Nation preclude any single piece or
1e~islatlon or nny :ungle !or.nula or any
stngle mcchanl$m that woulc blankeL the
water-resource.~ problems. Rather. wE>
believe. the h!lllslattve prognm needs to
be like a mosaic. In which many indiVidual
enactments fit togethP.r ln a composite
To lh!s end. the purpose of our resol\1·
Lion Is lo secure recommendations for
such a legislative program. Those recornmendatlons
should delineate the
amount. the tharacter, and the Umlng o!
water-resource development ne~ssary to
meet national reqUirements tn the y~nrs
ahead. The reStnbll!;hed jurisdlctil':' or
several of the r('IIUI:tr standln!! committees
ol me Sen:1te. Ye~ thet;e t:o; J:lPnt
!)resent need for an ovrrallle~islatlve desi~
n wilWn which each commlttcl' can
!unction to mutual ndvnntnge.
A closely parnllt?l sit untlon arose in the
84th Congress. and a. preced('nL C'SLabUsbed
then has guided us in thls n.:..'i, the Committee
on Armed Servtees and the Committee
on ApproprlaLions. 1t wns my
prtvilege to sJ>Qn!lor Senat~ ~ewlullt n
No. 285, of the 8-Ith Conr.ress. Tbut resolutton.
l~r. Mt:IIRA\"1. Is closely patternl'd on
the precedt:nL of tlle rorelgn-a!d l!tuct)·
resolution s. Rrs. No. !!85. 8-Ith Collin t•ss.
and provldl'S for R special study committee
comp()S(Id or el!lht &ma~ors who nrc
membet·s ot thl' standing oommllt•·cs
concerned. With rl'.~pcot to wn.1~1· l'csources.
the sWndln·: committer>s principally
conc:el-ned arc the Cornmltt~e 1111
lnlerlor and Insular Affairs and ti11:
Cemm:uee O.'l Public Works_ The Committee
on Int;·rstat.e und Forel"ll Commerce
is affected ns to Its concern 11 llh
the fish and wlldhfe con~ervnllr.m.
As In the C.'lH~ at lhc !oreilm-ald pror,
l'nm. any Srnnl\' nctton consequP.nt 1 o
tht' recommendation~ of this wnter-rc:;
ource.s commllleu would, ot courw. he
Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 40, Folder 11, Mansfield Library, University of Montana
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