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Speech c f :::;c n.:: .. or l .. i :.e li..!.
enate that too many households in this country still live in lq:;itimate fear of the catastrophic illness with its ruinous rr.e..iical and hospital costs. I remiad the Senate that the price of higher education is r:,oinc beyond the reach of most families , I remind the Gen:::tte of the disturbing situ ation in gener al health co:-1ditions, in physical and mental fitness. There are now some 16 million P.mericans - one out of every eleven - suifering from soroe form of mental illness and few of these are receivin3 adequate care and treatrr..ent. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana ('> - u - ,1\:.r, President, these are not new problerr-s nor are they proo-lems peculiar to this country, In some cases, they may be more acute in other nations than they are here at home. In others, we have the dubious distinction of holdin3 first place among the principal nations of the world, There are any number of conscientious people, in p rivate life and in federal, state and nmnicipal covernn1ents, civinc o£ themselves with great dedication in an effort to combat these and sir.nilar social ills, Nevertheless, the continued existence of these problems, in their present macnitude, approaches the dimensions of a national disgrace that cries out for corrective action, It is an indictment, not aEainst free institutions, but aeainst their ne glect and misuse by those who profess to support them. It is a reflection of a social irresponsibility v1}1ich heedom never licensed, The Russians did not malze these problems. The satellites in the slzy hc:.ve nothine to do with them, -.-re made these p rob lerr-s cursebes or, at any rate, we have permitted them to accumulate through ne t;lect. Their continued existence sap s the stren:::;th of the nat ion, It w eal~ens us at home and hence undercuts our poc;ition in the world, Let us ta~ ze the first step now , not by boasting of our achievements in this area, e ven though they may be many, but by recoe nizing that our social house is still a long way from beinc; in order and that it is up to us to put it in order. The Problem of Education Turninc specifically, Mr. President, to education as one of these social problems, here, too, the difficulties lie not with the Russians Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 9 - or the earth satellites but with ourselves. The Russians do not run our schools. Vie run them. These who are dedicated to education in this country, on the whole, do an adrnirable and, in a financial sense, a thankless job. The shortcomings in education, highlighted in recent months by Soviet scientific achievements, were discussed a short time ago on th3 floor in an illuminating and a penetrating fashion by tLe able Senator from Arkansas [M.r. Fulbrigh_!/. As I understand the problem, Mr. Fresident, the basic difficulty does not lie primarily in the methods of education, although they can stand much in tl.e way of refinement. It does not even lie in the educational plant al thougr1 that, too, is in great need o£ improvement. The more fundamentd problem, I believe, lies in ou:::- concept of education or perhaps, I should say, in the debasir.g of these concepts. We have lost sight of the ultimate purpose of the education of free men. That purpose, as I see it, Mr. President, is to open minds to the pursuit of truth. We have lost sight of fre3 education's highest ideal, Mr. President, which is to enrich the spirit oi mankind by pushing back the frontiers of his under standing. Education, in its finest s€:nsc, is not for the filling of the pocket, for the production of ever more fantastic military wea.p0!1S or even for the service of the state and industry. In the age in which we live these may be byproducts of education . They are net, however, th3 ends that will inspire the few men of genius which this or any othe r society has in its midst. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 10 - For too long we have alternately ignored, ridiculed or hounded these few who thinl~ in terms of the finest purposes of learnin~ and have something to give in those terms, For too long we have ne elected to search out and encourage young people who might contribute groundbrea'·inc thought and new ideas, not only in the realm of physics and engineering but in all aspects of human endeavor, I tell the Senate that if the well-springs of creativity dry up in this nation, we shall have no one to blame bEt ourselves, A billion or ten billion dollar crash proc;ram in education may produce new schools and better pay for t~achers, both of which are needed, but it will not produce an Einstein, an Edison or a Shal7espeare, An understanding and an appreciative society and covernment, hO'.ve ver, may help to bring them forth to pour their unusual talents into the procress of the nation and mankind, A rethinking of the ends and methods of education at all levels may encouraee the development of the self -discipline and the talents and skiEs that are necessary for a life in freedom in the second half of the 20th Century. Let us take the first step now by recognizing that our educational house is not in order and that it is up to us to put it in order. The Needs of Defense Mr. President, I turn next to the question of defense, As it presents itself today, this question arices in connection with the Soviet military menace, In my opinion, rnatters of defense •.TJould be a major source o£ nab.onal difficulty even if the Soviet menace were con sicerabl~r less potent Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 11 - than it is. The difficulty was with us before vte launched our earth-satelLte, ::::t was with us befo1·e the Soviet .Sputniks indicated the potential dimensions of Russian military power . It may well be with us even if that power should be neutralized or should decline. VIe have seen reports from time to time, in the press and elsewhere , that all is not well with the policies and or ganization of the defense services . Distineuished members of the Senate, the Senator from lv~ issoul'i !J~ir. 3yminc;to~,7 and the Senator from YJashington /Mr. Jackson/, for example, have stressed the seriousness of this matter. A step has been taken here and a step there in the direction of improving the services. Yet in all these years we have followed a policy of inertia, compounded of military and civilian smugness which I trust will not be fed even further by our recent and belated achievement in the per!etration of space. The heart of the difficulty, I believe, is to be found in the fact that we have GOne on year after year, handlin~ matters of defense in pattern::; that were developed largely during -~:.r orld i7ar II and immediately after. Here in Congress, we have in the postwar yean; appropriated funds approachine; SOC billions of dollars for defense, In some years we have appropriated more funds and in some years, less. But despite these vast financial commitments, we have failed heretofore to reexamine defense policies in the light of the rapid advances in science, V!e have failed to rethink these policies in the conte::t of those fundamental questions which arise in connecti_on with the military in any free society. 1:1e have not asked ou,..selves V'hat part Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 12 - of the total security of the nation we expect the regular military forces of the nation to provide. We have not asked ourselves whether the military establishment is now organized to play that part and to play it effectively. We have had a limited introduction to these neglected questions from the President in his State of the Union message. We have heard a brilliant exposition of the ultimate significance of these questions in a statement by the distinguished majority leader .L'TVlr. Johnso~7 at the outset of the session. The unanimous report of his Subcommittee on PrepareclneLs has thrown additional light on the subject and I have no doubt that we shall hear more from that source during this session. I want to add only a general comment to the issue at this time. It seems to me that our security as a nation depends upon multiple sources of strength, not merely organized military pcwer. That is as true tod3.y in the age of missiles as it was in the age of muskets. If history teaches us anything, it is this: the extinction of freedom and then of the nation may well lie at the end of an obsessive search for absolute security through the military establishment. I want to say, too, that, in my opinion, the military in this country functions best when it maintains a high degree of inner discipline and responds unquestioningly to the control of the P resident, his civilian agents and the acts of Congress. If this control is inept, it is for the people to change it, not for the military to bypass it. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 13 - I want to say, further, that in my opinion tne military makes its most dedicated contribution to the nation when it concerns itself essentiall:..and quietly with the problems of warfare. The Defense establishment and its military commanders do not belong in politics, domestic or internatio'1;:;.l. It is improper for civilian officials to project these commanders into politics and it is improper for these commanders to project themselves into politics while they are still in uniform. In matters of advanced scientific and technological research, the Defense establishment may play a distinguished part and research of this kind may have military applicability. Generally speaking, however, • .. is not the best site for the control and direction of creative scientific researc: •• I want to say, finally, without prejudging requests for funds, th;::.t I am C.oubtiul that the problems of our defense establishment will be correctn.ci by billions more in appropriations. We may find it necessary to vote larger appropriations as an interim measure. However, I shall continue to entertain serious questions as to the efficacy of expenditures until we understand more clearly the role of the milit~ry in tne total security of the natlon, until civilian control is once again firmly and clearly established over the Defcns3 Department and until the undisciplined and unmilitary disorder in the Pentagon is ended. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 14 - The Domestic Situation - Neglected Dimension of Foreign Policy Mr. President, I have gone on at some length discussing what are essentially domestic issues, There are others of a similar nature which might be considered at this time. I do not raise them because they lack importance. I do not do so because, as I noted earlier, my statement today is directed primarily to foreign policy. My purpose in beginning these remarks as I have was not only to call attention to the persistence of domestic difficulties which have impo::tance in themselves to the people of this country but also to emphasize their significance as a factor in our relations with other nations. These domestL.: difficulties a-e in a very real sense the neglected dimension of foreign policy. We have looked without and above for the darlger signals and well we should. At the same time, we have overlooked the warning signs within. These inner difficulties do not disappear simply because there may be more complex difficulties confronting us from outside. Internal difficulties cannot be swept out of sight by sweeping the skies with a radar screen. If we are free men, in spirit as well as words, we shall nol: put them aside. We shall face them 2.nd do the best we can to deal with them. We shall recognize them in all humility, for what they are, measurements of cur own national shortcoming8 as a free society. We shall see them, as they are, limitations on our total national unity and strength and, therefore, on our position in the world. This country shall not survive in recognizable form in the world of today and tomorrow, much less lead it, if we build Maginot Lines out of Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 15 - alliar:ces and bases around the world and stud the sky with artificial stars, only to permit disunity, inertia and fear to produce decay at the core. We will survive and we may lead if we face honestly our economic, moral, intellectual and military shortcomings at home and act with determination to meet them. That is me first requisite for the survival and growth of the United States. It is not the only requisite. Vie shall not remain a nation with hope for future generations of Americans and with a message for the world unless, at the same time, we face the responsibilities and the clifficulties of living on this ear\.h of many nations, unless we face these responsibilities and difficulties with quiet courage, with wisdom and with deep human understanding. We will survive, grow, and perhaps lead, in short, only if we keep alive the mea.1ing, the creative and the compassionate meaning, of a free America bot-;.1 at home and in the world. The N eed for PP.ac e Tl:at, Mr. President, :!.s the scope of the tctal pr0blem wl:ich c rmfronts us as a nation at the beginaing of 1958. I have alr~ady tried t:> illustrate the domestic a<>I:Ject of tl:is problem. In the remainder oi these remarks I should like t0 e"'!:plore s0me of it£ internatior:al implications. There is <1chon we must tal~ e and wr.ich we have not taken in our relatior.s v..rith othe1· nations and ir, the policies a.1d programs tl.rough which we conduct these relations. There is a need f0r clearsightec ac:tion Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 16 - based on an awareness of the world as it is and not as we would like it to be or as some may imagine it to be. What is needed is action that stems neither from a bloated and stupid arrogance or a hesitant timidity. It must be honest action and courageous action. It must be action that seeks in a positive fa shion to meet the greatest challenge of these years in which we live. The challeng e Mr. President, is to develop and to strengthen the one common interest of all peoples which outweighs their national differences, discords and doctrines. That interest, Mr. President, is the preservatjon of the human species in a recognizable form of civilization. That interest, in short, is peace, not a peace of conquest or a peace of surrender but a peace with which decent men and women the world over, in Russia no less than in the United States, can live. The Misle'tding Concept of Sit uations of Str ength Let me say that we shall not g e t that kind o£ peac e unless the Russian lead.ers as well as our own recognize its urgency for all mankind. Let me say further, however, that v.e shall not g et it in any event unless we ourselves also rethink the basic premises of our foreign policy. We have operated through the year s - through two administrations - on the theory that we might best seek peace by building situations of strength. The premise is valid enough, for weakness will not gain a meaningful peace . Where we have gone astray, however, is in our concept of what constitutes strength in an international sense. .Str e ngth is more than military equipment Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 17 - and alliances. It is more than the loud words, the Pyrrhic victories of the propaganda war; it is more than breast-beating. It is more than money for aid programs. Strength is, perhaps, more than these tangible things, an under standing of the world and its complexities. It is an under standing of what moves not only the lips of political leaders elsewhere but the heartc; of peoples throughout the world. Above all else, it is an ability to apply our total national strength in the light of this understanding for ends that serve both ourselves and the rest of decent mankind. Through the years, we have had the military strength and the bases and we have had the propaganda and the breast-beating. We have spent lavishly abroad on military and economic aid. Yet what has happened in these years? Once we had a monopoly of the A-bomb and now it is gone. Once we had a monopoly of the H-bomb and it is gone. These presumably were positions of stre'1gth and they are no more. Once earth satellites, with their implications of advanced military technology elsewhere, did not swing across our horizons. That, if not 21. position of s1:rength, was at least not one o.f weakness. Two devices from elsewhere speci above us before ours finally left the gro•md. There wa s a time when Soviet influence was remote from tha vast arc of underdeveloped nations that stretc~es from Africa to the Paci.Lir: and that, too, presumably was a situation of strength , Although we have spent billions of dollars for aid, and we have propagandized and we have had our Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 18 - breast-beaters in that region, Communist totalitarianism is now much in evidence throughout the area. Once the ties of the North Atlantic Alliance were close and intimate and that, too, was a situation of strength. Now the Alliance founders on rocks of aimlessness and narrow, shortsighted national interest. We may well ask ourselves, Mr. President, what are the impl.ications of these developments of recent years? Have they not reduc ed the concept of situations of strength to a catchphrase, to a will-o' -the -wisp? Does the continued pur suit of this concept by the same methods by the same slogans suggest the existence of a sound policy? Or does this pursuit me!"dy serve to cover an unwillingness of our national leadership to face the reali ties of the world and as an excuse for doing today what we did yesterday and wh"-t we will do tomorrow b e cause we know not what else to do? I suggest, Mr. President, that we have tost sight of the fact th a t strength is a many- sided thing - that lt has not only inte rnational aspects. bt:t domestic elements as well, that it has military and non-military facets, thc;,t it is not only money but methods, I suggest, Mr. P resident , that in our international relations we have failed in great measure to realize that if men do not live by bread alone, much less do they liv e by a id, pTopaga nda. or missiles alone. I suggest that the desperate but narrow search for situations of strength by ourselves as well as the Russians is leading civilized m ankind ever closer to the moment of extinction. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 19 - I suggest, finally, that this concept as it is now being pursued is self-defeating. It has left us, in a real sense, weaker than we were ten years ago, although the arsenals are filled with new and more powerful weapons, although the number of alliances and bases have multiplied, although we now have a satellite in the heavens. Ironically, it has also had the same effect on the Russians whose arsenals are also filled with new weapons, who have also managed to make new converts in various parts of the world, and who also have satellites in the skies. I say this because t e :1 years ago it would have been possible for the United States to reduce much of the Soviet Union to fire and ruin by military action. And ten years ago the Russians could have spread great damage in the Western world if not in the United States by military action. But it is doubtful that either side, ten years ago, could have completely obliterated the other, for all practic a l purposes, as a nation. Today, it is possible for each side to end the c1vilized existence of the other and to bring down the rest of the world in the process. Who is stronger in these circumstances? Vfho has gained from this competition? The truth is that neither has become stronger in the sense of its capacity for national survival. The truth is that both countries in the search for situations of power and strength have ended in situations of profound weakness. The concept of seeking situations of strength, on our part at least, began as a positive device for building a durable peace. It is ending as a Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 20 - last-ditch hope of staying alive or at least not dying under a rain of missiles unless our enemies also go into oblivion with us. Today, we, no less than the Russians, are clinging to civilized life by our fingertips. A New Concept of Poli.cy: ?ositions of Peace It is tim e to ask ourselves, Mr. Preside:1t, whether that is e nough for ourselves and mankind. !s it tim e , perhaps, to move on to a p ositive concept, to ~he concept of a !JOlicy th2-t se;'!ks to put togetl1.er not only situations of s trength but positions of peace? Let me illustr ate, Mr. President, with one h ighly significant incident, the fundamental difference th a t this latter cone ept implie s, the nifference between what we are now doing and what we ought to be doing in foreign policy . I refer to the NATO conference last December. Tl:at was inde ed a time, 1vl r. President, for greatness. It was a time when not only tbe Eu r o p~ ans , but the peoples of the world awaited a clear reaffirmation of the m ear.ing of a free America. It was a time when our own people looked for a clarification of the doubts that have grown in recent years as to the value of ctos e ties with other nations. Perhaps these expectations were too high. But it was a Summit Conference, Mr. President, called on our initiative and great things are expected of Summit conferences. At this point I wish to express my r e spect for President Eisenhower's dedication to duty in going to the NATO Conference. His insistence upon undertaking the mission in spite of the illness that he had suffered just prior to the meeting warrants the gratitude of the nation. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 21 - It was fortunate that he went because the President's appearanc ~ a t the Conference was a contribution to foreign policy that could have been obtained in no other way, by no other man in the Administration. His attendance, rekmdiing as it did, the remembrances of the close cooperati0r. and the mutual dedication of the war years, served to gain time for constructive action to hold together the North Atl antic Alliance. Let us not underestimate the importance of that contribution but, by the same token, let us keep it in perspective. What was obtained by this personal act of the President, I repeat, was time for action, not the necessary action itself. I ask the Senate to recall for a moment the circumstances of the NATO Conference and its results. The western nations met at a mon>ent when the Soviet Union had put a new and radical factor into the international equation by launching the two earth satellites. That demonstration had a profound effect on existing evaluations of Soviet scientific and military progress. It revealed as never before the degr e e of G.istortion on which many of our defense and foreign policies had been based. The demonstration . moreover, was coupled by new appeals for peace from the Soviet bloc and by new ideas for achieving it. That we may have regarded these appeals as bogus is beside the point. The fact is tha.t these two acts which linked scientific progress with peace had an enormous appeal to the peoples of the world weary of the constant threat of war. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 22 - In these circumstances, what came out of the NATO Conference? The only tangible achievement was a somewhat reluctant re-endorsement of the doctrine of building situations of strength in its narrowest sense. This time it took the form of approval of American proposals to place missile bases in those Western European countries willing to accept them. All else was a repetition in well-known platitudes of general hopes of cooperation. Mr. President, agreement on the placing of missiles in advantageous defense positions was an important achievement. It was not, however, a cure for the ills of the Western alliance. It did not begin to fill the urgent requirement for constructive and creative leadership. It did no t meet the needs of the hour. It did not meet the challenge of the new age, over the threshold of which the Soviet earth- satellites had already pas sed, and which we have now pas sed. It may still not be too late, Mr. P:i:esident, to take the action which might have been taken at the NATO Conference but was not taken. In the light of our own recent achievement, the rnoment rnay be even more propitious. It may be now or never if we are to n10ve from the negative doctrine of building situations of strength to a positive policy of seeking positions of peace. Nowhere is the necessity for this change more clearly indicated than in dealing with the problems of the rapid advance of science and technology and particularly with the exploration of space. As a minimum, Mr. President, t:his country might well have proposed at the NATO meeting and, may still propose, the extension of the Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 23 - Ir.ternational Geophysical year, in which both the Soviet nations and ourselves are participating, into a decade of worldwide scientific cooperation. That is only the beginning, Mr. President. This country, indeed, all countries must face up to the fact that the unfolding universe beyond the earth presents problems of such vast and c!1allenging dimensions that they call, not for the competition, but for the cooperation of all mankind. The need of the hour, as I see it, Mr. President, is for a sha1·ing of the genius, the labor and the cost of the expl.oration of space. The neee. is not for platitudes on cooperation, while the race for advantage goes on beneath the platitudes. The need is for men a.nd women of many rtations working together in the same laboratories, on the same proving grounds and on the same scientific devices. And it is time now for this common effort to begin. It is an effort which might well start among the NATO members, but no nation willing to participate in good faith ought to be excluded from this great ven :m: ~. I realize, Mr. President, that there are immense problems in the way of negotiating agreements for an undertaking of this kind. There are deep fears and suspicions to be overcome. There are dangers of the loss of military or commercial advantages - real or illusory -for us and for others - Yet are these difficulties of any greater complexity than those which will surely confront all nations within a few years if action along these lines is not taken, if instead a pell-mell rush for national advantage takes place into outer space? Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 24 - A Cooperative Exploration of Space Mr. President, I do not know whether the Russians will rise to the challenge of this moment in human history and I, for one, hope that they shall. There is every reason to believe, however, that if this nation acts with the boldness, and the positive leadership that the hour demands, ofl:1er NATO nations at least will be with us. The cost, the effort, the sacrifices will be less to all if we join with t~1em in this great endeavor. And the achi evement will belong to all. I believe that this country no less than any other f ~:~ e nation would prefer it, if the scientific devices which from now on in increasing numbers, shall carry mankind beyond the confines of the ear th shall bear the label, not of one nation but of all nations willing to contribute to the effort. The Basic Need Mr. President, I have cited thi s one example of a positive policy of building pocitiuns of peace . There are others in every aspect of foreign policy in which a similar revision of thjnking seems to me to be essential. ln subsequent.remarks, I may turn to some of the se questions, to the question of the divided countries of Asia and Europe, to the question o£ Eastern Europe, to the question of the Middle East, to the question of negotiations with the H us sians. The first need, the basic need, as I see it, howev er, was well put by President Theodore Heus s of West Ge1·many a few weeks ago when he said: "The main thing is to get s0ber and di.se11tangle oneself from the web Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana - 25 - oi slc_;ar.::.; a .. d ilcologics . 11 That advice appLes to us with no less t.~r,se::J.C~' than it a!_)f'~-ies tG o"her n :>.tions. It cpplies in the scientific field above all oth<~ !'s, bece.usP. the advance in this field has made most of t:!-le slogans ob3olete ar- i is corr.pelling a revision of the ideolog~es. Unless we see tre world ?.S i<.: i. s at this hou:r, as it is likely to be tomorrow, unlflss the .RusAi.a.ns and o t~er :: see it, free of self-generated and propaganda-im;?Osed delusions, we s r1all not make tl-e choices that rr,ust be n1ade if human history is not to come to an end. We are faced with choices that involve the life or death of civiliz;,_::.or... Ea:::h act in fo:-eign relations by every nation adds to one or t~e other side of the balance. In these acts, we are decidir.g not only i:nmed:.atc q~1estions. In the last analysis, we are dec~dir.g, lVu. Presi~ent, whether the wo:dd ia to be a dead planet spinning in swift silence through the endless time c.nd space of the universe or whether this noble but brief human experience en ea:;:th shall be ca1·ried to the stars. Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 39, Folder 36, Mansfield Library, University of Montana
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|Title||The Needs of the Hour|
|Creator||Mansfield, Mike, 1903-2001|
|Subject||United States--Politics and government--20th century|
|Collection||Mike Mansfield Papers, MSS 065|
|Series||Series XXI: House/Senate: Speeches and Reports, 1942-1977|
|Contributors||Archives and Special Collections, Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, The University of Montana. For additional information about our collections visit our website: http://www.lib.umt.edu/asc . To suggest a keyword or share what you know about this item e-mail email@example.com|
|Relation||For further information connect to the online guide for this collection: http://nwda-db.orbiscascade.org/findaid/ark:/80444/xv87911|
|Provenance||Gift of Mike Mansfield|
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Speech c f :::;c n.:: .. or l .. i :.e li..!.