~' ~ n
1960 .. y 9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- SENAT.t 9077
THE SHOOTING DOW.S OP THE U.S.
PLA.~ OVER RUSSIA
Mr M.-\..~SFIELD. Mr. President, I
as1t unanimous cousen~ that at this ume
1 may proceed tor 6 minutes In addition
to th<' time permttt<'d under the order
<>nter<'d as to length of lllittcments.
Tile VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection,
It is so ordered.
Mt·. MANSFIELD. Mr. Pt•esldcnt. the
racts In the plane Incident nre now becoming
clear. They are not plen~t~.nt
racts. and we shall do well to race them
u the President and the l'kcretary of
State are doing. Acknowl<'dBment or
l.he Identity of the plane and Its aeneral
p~ was the only honorable course
to pursue 1n thLs 5ltuaUon. I commend
both the President and Mr. Herter; and
I commend the So\·tet Premier. too. for
his perspicacity In recognizing that the
President bad no advance knowledie of
These attitudes may help t.o pu~ the
Incident 1n the larger perspective of the
erltlcnl need of mankind to lind a way
out of the deadlY mora.ss of Incipient
nuclear war. The attitudes would appear
to make possible the convening or
the summit conference u scheduled
and. I would hope, would permit the PresIdent.
U he so desired. to go to Russia this
Let It not be assumed, ho9.·~ver, !.hat
thl~ Incident will soon be forgott.t'n and
that. aft.t'r a Uttle whlle. 9.'C can ao bad:
to cold war as usual. I hope the Russians
no less than ourselves will arasp
the larger and lasting significance or tbls
Incident. I1 I may say so. thnt slgnl11cance
Is not to be found In treaties on
the Immorality of spying. It Is not tor
the Russians to lecture us on that subject.
For there Is spyln~t and there Is
spying, and he who ts with sin In this
matter ought not to cast the nrst stone.
I 6hall not take the time or the senate,
nor Mr. Kbrushchcv·-lf these remarks
~hould come to his attt>ntlon-to
re\iew the history or So\1et espionage tn
this country and throughout the 9.·orld
during the past quarter ct>ntury. It one
~iahes to speak or Immorality and provocations,
there Is more thlln enough to
go around. But there is no point In
raking recriminations out or the sorry
ashes of the past.
That Is precisely the point which this
Incident should bring home to the Russians
no less than to oursclve, We are
dealing In this Incident, u In the many
variations of espionage which have
already been Indulged In by ou, not so
much with acts of Immorality, but with
acts or desperation, ~1th unwise, toolIsh
acts, perhaps, but with the lnt'\'ltable
acts of mutllal terror. which stem from
the tearful situation Into which the
9.'0rld has been allowed t.o drift.
That Is the larger p;l<>nlftcance of this
Incident. We will make a 11rcat contribution
t.o tbe peace or mankind If we
recognize that significance rather than
attempt to minimize the Incident by proclaiming
that the Rusalnns have done
worse In the past. Mr Khrushchev, too,
will make a great contribution to the
peace of mankind U he concentrates on
the fearful wotld sltuat;on 'i!ihlch gave
r'..se to the Incident. To do 110. however,
he will have to fors:o the urge to don
the robes or the pulpit and dell\·er sermons
on mornllty. He will have to resist
the ob\1ous tempU\tlon to mUk this Incident
of the last drop or propnganda
That may be asking n great deal. for
I cannot sny In all honesty that we have
done very well on this score In the past.
Nevertheless, 1l the Russlnns. no less
than ourselves. mcnn to have peace, il
we mean to put. an end to the tearful
situatton which gives rtu to these Incidents,
then they, no less than we, must
make an end to the childlike, black-andwhite,
policeman lnttrpretatlon of the
9.'0rld and Its peoples and what tranSPires
For us, for this N"aUon. there are other
reasons-naUonal renaon._why this Incident
ca.rmot and must not be put aside
lightlY. There are Implications In this
Incident which go t.o the VCI'Y heart of
our system of t·eprcsentattve, responsible
The record wlll show that I have supported,
as fitmly a& I have been able,
the preservation or the primary powers
of the Presidency, through Republican
and Democratic administrations. in matters
pertalmng to the conduct or foreign
policy and defense The record Is available
1n the debates on the Formosa resolution.
on the Eisenhower re~lutton, and
on other matters. That support. Mr.
President, however, was contingent on
the assumption that. the powers of the
Presidency would be exercised by the
duly elected, duly constituted President.
It Is one thing tor an elected. popularly
responsive President t.o exercise these
enormous powers. It Is another for tbe
nonelected. nonresponsive bureaucracy
to take upon lt.:;elf these powers.
The President has made It quite clear
that he had no knowledlle of the ftight
of the plane Involved In this Incident.
Yet somewhere In this Government. In
some fashion, orders were rtven. a chain
of command wu followed. And the net
result was to bring about. !.he most serious
damage to our efforts to promote peace.
The President has been WlBcrcut on the
eve of a major International conference
at a moment of world crisis. The worldwide
adverse repercusalons to the foreign
poUcy of the United States have
only begun, but they will be heard loudly
and ominously from Norv•ay to Japan.
Moreover, this Incident or any other of
this Jdnd mieht well have accidentlY set
orr the holocaust. of nuclear eon.flict
which we have been striving at great cost
and sacrlftce to prevent.
All of Ulese conSCQu~nces-these
damaztng consequences-have derived
from Ule exercise or Ule powers or the
Presidency In fore!Rn relations and defense.
but Ule powers hnve been exercised
wllhout the knowledge of the PresIdent
and. as far as I nm aware. without
the knowledge ot oven a member o! the
Cabinet. These conRequcnces. In short,
may well have derived not from an act
o! respon.~ibl,. rcpre~~ntatlve government,
but !rom what on other occa-slons
t have tried to defl.ne as government.
by acency rivalry or agency accommodation.
Jt Is Ulls problem to wbJcb the plane
Incident. compels us to address our attention
nrmly and relentlesslY. The
President played no part In the partlcul81'
Incident, but the admlnistratlon, any
administration. nevertheless. does bear a
grave responsibility, !or it is incumbent
on It to provide politically responsible
leadership to. and popularly responsible
control ov~r. the bureaucracy. Nol" Ls
Con!frt'!IS without responsibility. For.
while the administration conducts the
roretan relaUons and defense of the Nation.
congreaa can and does color Ulls
conduct In provld.lng for tbe agenc1es
"'·hich urve the President 1n this connection.
The need. now, as It long has been. Is
t.o ~ to It Ulat. the actions of the agencies
of this Government reflect the foreign
policies which should be laid down
by the President through the Secretary
of State. The need Is to see to It that
when the Piesldont and the Secretary of
State give voice to policies of pence, no
agency presumes to undo what they sayby
accident or design.
It would not be dlftlcult. I suppose. to
ftnd scapegoats for this Incident. Nor
vmuld It be ditllcult to make political
capital or lt. The Interests of the Nation
and the hope for peace, however.
v.·m hardly be served by either course. I
hope all or us will eschew either a blood
lust tor scapegoats or the temptations of
political advantage In this Incident. I
hope the administration and the Conaress
together will strive to get at the
dangerous flaws In the structure o! the
executive branch of this Government, at
the grounds of lrresponslbiUty which give
rise to lncldenta or this Jdnd, and put an
end to them before Irreparable damnge is
done to the freedom and safety of tho
N"atton and to the prospects for oeace.
Mike Mansfield Papers, Series 21, Box 40, Folder 78, Mansfield Library, University of Montana
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