~~~ Q:ongrcssional1Rcco d
UnitcJ State1 th
of America PROCEEDINGS AND DIBATES OF THE 94 CONGRESS, FIRST SI:S. ION
Vol. 121 WASHINGTON, TUESDAY, APRIL 15, 1975 No. 57
THE SITUATION IN SOUTHEAST
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President. I nsk
unanimous coruent to have printed in
the RECORD a statement I made before
the Senate Democratic conference on
yesterday; article 12 of the Paris Accords
o! 2 years ago; remarks by Senator JoHN
L. McCLELLAN, chainnan of Committee
on Appropriations: letters from the President
addressed to the chairman of the
Senate Committee on the Judiciary and
to the Speaker of the House, and various
adml.n.lstratlon proposals which are in
!me with the President's suggest.lons ol
Thursday last, when he delivered his state
of the world address before a joint session
There being no objection, the materlal
was ordered to be prlnted 1n the RECORD,
STATEMJ!'NT OJ' SI':"NATOR Muu: MANS.I'IELD
This Oonference or the m~ the SRme Preeldent
Fon1 Is a good man, a 'decent man Hie
1ntentlone a... of the ben. He ~peaks
the nation's !\neat aentlmenta when he t"lk
ot lnterna.llona.l cooperation tn the tea.rch
for progress and pent·e. Indeed, he owes no
a.pology-thls nation OY.es no apology-to an}
o~her on th&~ score.
When that hM ~en aid, however, w~ arl'
back to where we started, We confront the
lnescapa.ble. We are race to taco once &.gain
with the .gony ot Indochina. On that sltuatlort
there are dtfTen>noes- There arc deep
dllf~rencea wtthl.rl this government, differences
which cannot bfo ~>;lOSied over wltll the
words ot ln.aplratlon or u.splratlon, They ILl'"
not so much tx-twl'en the parties as the~
e.ce dUrereoces between the bmnclles. At
long J.&at. bowever, It Is apparent that even
these are being overtaken by even u. and
are disappearing. Thanks to the Pa•l~ agTeements
or 1973, the guns an! silent In LaoS
and what transplrea lnsi.do that amall n&tion
has ce~~..sed to stir contro;eroy or Cfllls t<' wa.r
In this nation. Voices are no longer raised
In advocacy ot the reintroduction or U.S. mlllta.
ry forces, directly or Indirectly, Into Laos
There are no longer slgnl.Ocnnt dlf!erence~
on that score.
What tra.ru~plred over thl~ past we<•kend.
moreover, haa brought us to much the aarne
point In rega.rd to cambodia. There. thank..s
to the paat Insistence ot the Congress that
our Involvement be terminated, t.here have
been no Americana directly engaged In thr
war roc aeveral yeal'!l. And thanka to the n·tu.
sa.l of thl.s Congress to vote one c~n t more
ot 110-called emergency military alu In the
past few weeka, we ha\'e brought to an end, at
laat, what was from the out.J>f!t an aimless anti
coetly Involvement. In 110 doing. I hope that
there will now come to the C&mbodlan people,
with a minimum or further blO<>d heel
and with the return of the legitimate head or
that state, Prince Slhanouk. a restoration of
orderly government and Inner peace, In rtltrospect,
the engulfment of what wa.s once tht!
most peaceful and unlll.ed people In Indochtha,
ot lhl.s small but culturally dlstln
1\Jld Independent nation. In the sprendln
flames or the VIetnamese wn.r. wM oue or the
most deplorable episodes or the great tm cth
It JJ; a reljef to know that the removnl or
the perbOnnel !rom the U.S. Ernba y In
Phnom Penh over the weekend took plact•
without untowlllll'd tncldent. I hope that
that e\ent will be seen not Man eutllnc bu
a11 the ll.rat etep In a new beclnnlng of what
should have been from the onset and ce.n
still be a coMtructlve r~latlonahlp In peaet'
between the people ot Cambodia and the people
ot the UnHe\bout
is salvagea ble. We have already witnessed a $1 billion in additional funds which belong
m assive military collapse In South VIetnam. to the American people. That Is no mean sum
An Immense and exhausting effort of many to take out of their livelihood, especially at
years has disappeared In the dust and this time. One must consider, too, that subsmoke
of crumbling strongpolnts. In the stantlal as it is, the request amounts to
wreckage bllll.ons of dollars In man-hours and but a fraction of the cost of what has been
m aterials have disappeared, not to speak of abandoned and lost by the VIetnamese forces
the lives and suffering of tens of thousands of In the last few weeks of retreat. In my
Americans and the agony of millions of Viet- judgment, therefore, there are many quesnamese
clvUians and soldiers on both sides. tiona to be asked, lest funds be provided
To be sure, there is no profit at this time with which to rush pell-mell Into another
in hashing over the might-have-beens Of the costly exercise In futlllty.
past. Nor ts there value In finger-pointing. Speaking as one Senator, I must say that
That Is not to say, however, that we should my votes for many years have consistently
n ot, at a time of greater detachment, seek reflected a belief that the blanket supply
to understand and to learn from this of military aid in Southeast Asia has repreph
enomenon and our part In it. Let me say sented the wrong policy In the wrong place.
for now. however, that at this late date to I am very doubtful that, emergency notwithsee
the cyclonic change In the mllltary sltua- standing, the present request for m1lltary
tion In South Vietnam as something that aid represents aJ1:vthlng other than a concould
have been withstood If only con- tlnuance of that policy. Nevertheless, the
gress had put up a few hundred million dol- question has been opened anew by the Presl
nrs more In military aid during the past !dent and I trust that it will be examined
few weeks, Is a distortion so immense that anew by the Senate.
It borders on-I choose the word carefully- As for Immediate humanitarian asstst."
It borders on the Irrational. ance, It would seem to me that once the
That brings me to the Immediate Issue violence Is curbed, this nation should do
which oonfronts the members of this Con- what It can to ease the massive suffering
terence and the Senate. I refer to the Ad- which has been visited on all three Indoministration's
request for more aid for chinese oountries by this prolonged and
Vietnam. In his address last Thursday, the agonizing struggle. We owe that much to
President asked for $722 million In mllltary the people there--not to a chosen few but
aid and an "Initial sum" of $250 million in to all wbo have suffered-we owe It to them
economic and humanitarian aid for VIetnam as a part of the human 1iam!ly and we owe
for a total of $972 million. In addition, Con- It to ourselves, to our own national sense
gress was urged to act on this request by of decency.
AprU 19, tha t Is, by Friday of this week. In my judgment, however, we can do what
Finally, a clarification was also sought of the needs to be done and what can effectively
President's authority to use U.S. force, If be done only through an Instrumentality
necessary, to evacuate u.s. personnel and or group of Instrumentalities which are acertain
Vietnamese from South VIetnam. political In structure and so recognized
The Leadership expects the Armed services thro·ughout the world, Several such lnstruCommittee
an d the Foreign Relations Com- mentalities come Immediately to mind as,
mittee to Inquire Into the latter question for example, the International Red Cross
with ou t delay to the end that the Senate and the Salvation Army.
a nd the President may be provided with It would seem to me, furthermore, that a
guidance as to the Congressional Intent. I prerequisite of any kind of aid-program,
would h ope, too, that the appropriate sub- If It is to have a constructive Impact In
committees of the Judiciary would look Into this critical situation, would be a good faith
the matter of Immigration policy as It may • effort by the Saigon government to open
be in volved. As for the Leadership's view, urgent negotiations seeking to establish a
It would seem desirable only to enter certain tripartite National Council of National Re·
caveats 1n regard to this point at tills time. con ciliation under Al"tlcle 12 of the Paris
It Is one thing to u•c U.S. force, briefly, Peace Acoords of 1973. On that basts, perto
safeguard and to remove Americans from haps, the achievement of the cease-fire for
a dangerous area as was done In Phnom Penh which the President Is seeking to enlist the
over t he weekend. It would be qUite another cooperation of other nations may be atmatter
if the presence of such forces In a talnable. At thts point, there is no room for
danger w n .. for the removal of non-Amerl· adamancy on the part of any Individual
cans should produce new U.S. combat casual- In the Saigon government. It would be well
ties and become the bas1s for a relnvolve- to remember that wh.at Is at stake ts not
ment in the military confl.lct In Vietnam the rea.ssertlon of Saigon's control .over the
In a ny way, shape or · form. Let me say as thousands of square miles of territory which
clearly as I can that the Majority Leader, Its forcee have abandoned. What Is at stake
speaking personally, regards that war In the Is the prevention of a final Gotterdammesense
of U.S. military involvement as over , rung at Saigon.
for t h is n a t ion. Congress has spoken In no We are coming to the end of a long, long
uncertain terms on that point. Legally, the road in Indochina. There Is light at the end
war cannot and must not be resumed with- of the tunnel. The Jlght Is that of our final
out t he express consent of the American peo- dtsengagement from Indochina. It ts the
pie speaking t h rough the Congress and the light of the separation of this nat1,..11 from
President jointly. The sooner everyone In this a devastating war In which no vital Interest
government, In every branch and service rec- of this nation was ever at stake-a war for
ogntzes that Constitutional reality, the bet- which we have paid and will continue to
ter for all concerned. To find any pretext to pay Into the next century.
the contrary is to r aise once again the specter As we move towards the end af that Inof
Watergate--the specter of gross Illegal be- volvement, we reopert the possibility of rehavlor
on t he part or officials or the United storing a national unity more deeply shatStates,
sworn to u phold the Constitution and tered than at any time since the Civil war.
the law. I do not expect any such pretext. If that possibility Is to be broug.b.t to frui-
As for the President's request for emer· tlo.r;t, In the end, It Is the President and the
gen cy military a id, the Leadership expects Congress, jointly, and no others , who must
that It will receive expeditious consldera- make the decisions of policy to guide t h is
tlon . Any President is entitled to t hat con- government. The President h as offered to
worlc wit h the Congrcs.~ tn. t his connection .
He hR-< tho reclproc~
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